Nano-Micro Letters

Review of Water-Assisted Crystallization for TiO2 Nanotubes

Xiaoyi Wang1, Dainan Zhang1, Quanjun Xiang1, Zhiyong Zhong1, Yulong Liao1,2

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Nano-Micro Lett. (2018) 10: 77

First Online: 15 November 2018 (Review)


*Corresponding author. E-mail: yulong.liao@uestc.edu.cn





TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have drawn tremendous attention owing to their unique architectural and physical properties. Anodizing of titanium foil has proven to be the most efficient method to fabricate well-aligned TNTs, which, however, usually produces amorphous TNTs and needs further thermal annealing. Recently, a water-assisted crystallization strategy has been proposed and investigated by both science and engineering communities. This method is very efficient and energy saving, and it circumvents the drawbacks of thermal sintering approach. In this paper, we review the recent research progress in this kind of low-temperature crystallization approach. Here, various synthetic methods are summarized, and the mechanisms of the amorphous–crystalline transformation are analyzed. The fundamental properties and applications of the low-temperature products are also discussed. Furthermore, it is proved that the water-assisted crystallization approach is not only applicable to TNTs but also to crystallizing other metal oxides.



TiO2 nanotube, Crystallization, Water-assisted, Low-temperature

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