Nano-Micro Letters

Comprehensive Application of Graphene: Emphasis on Biomedical Concerns

S. Syama1, P. V. Mohanan1,*

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Nano-Micro Lett. (2019) 11: 6

First Online: 12 January 2019 (Review)


*Corresponding author. E-mail: mohanpv10@gmail.com





Graphene, sp2 hybridized carbon framework of one atom thickness, is reputed as the strongest material to date. It has marked its impact in manifold applications including electronics, sensors, composites, and catalysis. Current state-of-the-art graphene research revolves around its biomedical applications. The two-dimensional (2D) planar structure of graphene provides a large surface area for loading drugs/biomolecules and the possibility of conjugating fluorescent dyes for bioimaging. The high near-infrared absorbance makes graphene ideal for photothermal therapy. Henceforth, graphene turns out to be a reliable multifunctional material for use in diagnosis and treatment. It exhibits antibacterial property by directly interacting with the cell membrane. Potential application of graphene as a scaffold for the attachment and proliferation of stem cells and neuronal cells is captivating in a tissue regeneration scenario. Fabrication of 2D graphene into a 3D structure is made possible with the help of 3D printing, a revolutionary technology having promising applications in tissue and organ engineering. However, apart from its advantageous application scope, use of graphene raises toxicity concerns. Several reports have confirmed the potential toxicity of graphene and its derivatives, and the inconsistency may be due to the lack of standardized consensus protocols. The present review focuses on the hidden facts of graphene and its biomedical application, with special emphasis on drug delivery, biosensing, bioimaging, antibacterial, tissue engineering, and 3D printing applications.



Graphene; Biomedical; Bioprinting; Toxicity; Photothermal therapy

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