Nano-Micro Letters

Hierarchical Metal–Organic Frameworks with Macroporosity: Synthesis, Achievements, and Challenges

Huan V. Doan1, 2, *, Harina Amer Hamzah1, Prasanth Karikkethu Prabhakaran1, Chiara Petrillo1, Valeska P. Ting1, *

icon-htmlFull Text Html
icon-pdf-smPDF w/ Links
icon-citExport Citation
+Show more

Nano-Micro Lett. (2019) 11: 54

First Online: 08 July 2019 (Review)


*Corresponding author. E-mail: huan.doan@bristol.ac.uk (Huan V. Doan); v.ting@bristol.ac.uk (Valeska P. Ting)





Introduction of multiple pore size regimes into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to form hierarchical porous structures can lead to improved performance of the material in various applications. In many cases, where interactions with bulky molecules are involved, enlarging the pore size of typically microporous MOF adsorbents or MOF catalysts is crucial for enhancing both mass transfer and molecular accessibility. In this review, we examine the range of synthetic strategies which have been reported thus far to prepare hierarchical MOFs or MOF composites with added macroporosity. These fabrication techniques can be either pre- or post-synthetic and include using hard or soft structural template agents, defect formation, routes involving supercritical CO2, and 3D printing. We also discuss potential applications and some of the challenges involved with current techniques, which must be addressed if any of these approaches are to be taken forward for industrial applications.



Metal-organic frameworks; Hierarchical; Macroporous; Composites

 View: Full Text HTML | PDF w/ Links