25February2020

Nano-Micro Letters

Three-dimensional Self-assembled Hairball-like VS4 as High Capacity Anodes for Sodium-ion Batteries

Shuangshuang Ding1, Bingxin Zhou1, Changmiao Chen1, Zhao Huang2, Pengchao Li1, Shuangyin Wang3, Guozhong Cao4, Ming Zhang1, *

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Nano-Micro Lett. (2020) 12: 39

First Online: 25 January 2020 (Article)

DOI:10.1007/s40820-020-0377-7

*Corresponding author. E-mail: zhangming@hnu.edu.cn (Ming Zhang)

 

Abstract

 


Toc

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered to be attractive candidates for large-scale energy storage systems because of their rich earth abundance and consistent performance. However, there are still challenges in developing desirable anode materials that can accommodate rapid and stable insertion/extraction of Na+ and can exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the self-assembled hairball-like VS4 as anodes of SIBs exhibit high discharge capacity (660 and 589 mAh g-1 at 1 and 3 A g-1, respectively) and excellent rate property (about 100% retention at 10 and 20 A g-1 after 1,000 cycles) at room temperature. Moreover, the VS4 can also exhibit 591 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 after 600 cycles at 0 °C. An unlike traditional mechanism of VS4 for Na+ storage was proposed according to the dates of ex-situ characterization, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical kinetic analysis. It was found that the transformation of VS4 to Na2S and V is partially reversible during the first ten cycles, so the capacities are decreased. A subsequent increase of capacities can owe to the increment of the reversible conversion reaction between Na2S and S to store Na+. The capacities of the final stabilization stage are provided by the reactions of reversible transformation between Na2S and S, which were considered the reaction mechanisms of Na-S batteries. This work can provide a basis for the synthesis and application of sulfur-rich compounds in fields of batteries, semiconductor devices, and catalysts.


 

Keywords

VS4; Sodium-ion batteries; Low-temperature batteries; Reaction kinetics; Na+ storage mechanism

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