Nano-Micro Letters

N-Graphene Nanowalls Via Plasma Nitrogen Incorporation and Substitution: The Experimental Evidence

Neelakandan M Santhosh1, 2, Gregor Filipič 1, Eva Kovacevic3, Andrea Jagodar3, Johannes Berndt3, Thomas Strunskus4, Hiroki Kondo5, Masaru Hori5, Elena Tatarova6, Uroš Cvelbar1, *

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Nano-Micro Lett. (2020) 12: 53

First Online: 17 February 2020 (Article)


*Corresponding author. E-mail: uros.cvelbar@ijs.si (Uroš Cvelbar)





Incorporating nitrogen (N) atom in graphene is considered a key technique for tuning its electrical properties. However, this is still a great challenge, and it is unclear how to build N‑graphene with desired nitrogen configurations. There is a lack of experimental evidence to explain the influence and mechanism of structural defects for nitrogen incorporation into graphene compared to the derived DFT theories. Herein, this gap is bridged through a systematic study of different nitrogen‑containing gaseous plasma post‑treatment on graphene nanowalls (CNWs) to produce N-CNWs with incorporated and substituted nitrogen. The structural and morphological analyses describe a remarkable difference in the plasma‑surface interaction, nitrogen concentration, and nitrogen incorporation mechanism in CNWs by using different nitrogen‑containing plasma. Electrical conductivity measurements revealed that the conductivity of the N‑graphene is strongly influenced by the position and concentration of C‑N bonding configurations. These findings open up a new pathway for the synthesis of N‑graphene using plasma post‑treatment to control the concentration and configuration of incorporated nitrogen for application-specific properties.



Graphene; Graphene nanowalls; Plasma post‑treatment; Nitrogen incorporation; Raman spectroscopy; Vacancy defects

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