16November2018

Nano-Micro Letters

Synthesis of Micron-sized Hexagonal and Flower-like Nanostructures of Lead Oxide (PbO2) by Anodic Oxidation of Lead

Dinesh Pratap Singh1,*,Onkar Nath Srivastava2

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Nano-Micro Letters, , Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 223-227

Publication Date (Web): December 2, 2011 (Article)

DOI:10.3786/nml.v3i4.p223-227

*Corresponding author. E-mail: singh.dinesh@usach.cl; dineshpsingh@gmail.com

 

Abstract

 


Figure 1 (a) TEM micrograph of the Hexagon-like structures synthesized at 2 V. (b) Magnified TEM micrograph of the hexagon and inset is the SAED pattern of the hexagon revealing the structures of α-PbO2.

Micron sized hexagon- and flower-like nanostructures of lead oxide (a-PbO2) have been synthesized by very simple and cost effective route of anodic oxidation of lead sheet. These structures were easily obtained by the simple variation of applied voltage from 2-6V between the electrodes. Lead sheet was used as an anode and platinum sheet served as a cathode. Anodic oxidation at 2V resulted in the variable edge sized (1-2mm) hexagon-like structures in the electrolyte. When the applied potential was increased to 4V a structure of distorted hexagons consisting of some flower-like structures were obtained. Further increment of potential up to 6V resulted in flower like structures of a-PbO2 having six petals. The diameter of the flower-like structures was ~200-500 nm and the size of a petal was ~100-200nm.


 

Keywords

Lead oxide nanostructures; Anodic oxidation; Hexagon-like structures; Flower-like nanostructures

 

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Introduction

 

The fabrication of micrometer and submicrometer-sized materials are of great scientific and technological importance in applications such as photonic materials, microchip reactor, miniaturized sensor, separation technologies, and non-linear optical apparatus [1-6]. Lead monoxide nanostructures and its composites [7] have been synthesized by various methods such as spray pyrolysis [8], porous alumina template based method [9], sonochemical method [10] and sol gel method, [11] etc. PbO2 electrodes are applied in the industrial processes such as energy conversion, synthesis, process recycling and environmental treatment [12-17]. It is well known that PbO2 exhibits excellent chemical stability in an acid medium and nanostructured lead dioxide are reported as a novel stationary phase for solid phase microextraction [18]. PbO2 can be obtained easily as anodic deposits from solutions of the low-valence lead ions [19]. The properties of lead dioxide are highly dependent on its method of synthesis, which affects the structure, morphology and phase composition. PbO2 sub micrometer-sized hollow spheres and microtubes [20], lead oxide nanotubes [21],porous PbO2 electrodes [22], lead oxide nanobelts [23], and lead dioxide films [24] have been synthesized by applying different synthesis routes. Liang Shi et al. reported lead oxide nanosheets, scrolled nanotubes, and nanorods in a controlled way[25].

 

PbO2 nano-powders were synthesized by the ultrasonic irradiation of an aqueous suspension of dispersed b-PbO, as a precursor, in the presence of ammonium peroxydisulfate as an oxidant [26]. Recently a sonochemical method was used for the synthesis of pure lead (II) oxide nanoparticles or nanobelts by utilizing mixed nano lead(II) two-dimensional coordination polymer as precursor [27-29].

 

Moreover, the electrocatalytic properties of PbO2 may be enhanced by the incorporation of ions such as F-. In this context, fluorine-doped PbO2 has been synthesized in the presence of some additives of fluorine-containing compounds (F-, potassium salt of nonafluoro-1-butanesulfonic acid C4F9O3SK and Nafion) [30]. Due to the limited studies on PbO2 morphology and their subsequent application in nanoscale and microscale electronic devices, investigation on the synthesis and size dependent properties of lead oxide are significantly delayed. Micron sized hexagons and flower-like structures of a-PbO2 have been synthesized by a very simple route of anodic oxidation of lead sheet. These structures can be easily obtained by the simple variation of voltage from 2 to 6V between the platinum and lead electrodes. Synthesis of these structures is very simple and no costly chemicals, catalysts and surfactants are required.

 

Experimental Method

 

The experiment was performed in an electrochemical bath of Perspex with two electrodes set up. High purity lead sheet (alfa ascar, 99.9%) was utilized as a working electrode (the anode). A platinum sheet served as the counter electrode (the cathode) for anodization. The distance between the electrodes was kept at 1 cm. A constant voltage of 2V, 4V or 6V was applied between the electrodes using a potentiostat for a time span of one hour in every case. The volume of the electrochemical bath was 4´3´3 cm3 and the surface area of each electrode was 2´1 cm2. 5 ml distilled water (with very low ionic conductivity ~ 6-10 μS/m and pH=6.5) was used as the electrolyte. After every electrolysis run the synthesized material (settled down on the bottom of the electrolytic cell) was dried on the formvar coated copper grid and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Tecnai 20G2), and x-ray diffraction technique (XRD, X Pert Pro Panalytical).

 

Results and Discussions

 

Figure 1(a) and (b) show the transmission electron microscopy image and selected area electron diffraction (SAD) of the materials synthesized by electrolysis at 2V for one hour. Micron sized hexagon like structures having different edge size were observed throughout the whole sample. These structures were perfect hexagons with an edge size variation from 1 to 2μm. Figure 1(b) is the magnified TEM micrograph of the hexagon-like structures. These structures were highly crystalline in nature. The contrast present in the images, mainly the extinction contours, indicates the presence of some sort of defects. The inset in Fig. 1(b) is the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern from the hexagon structures, indicating that these structures are of crystalline PbO2.

 

Figure 1 (a) TEM micrograph of the Hexagon-like structures synthesized at 2 V. (b) Magnified TEM micrograph of the hexagon and inset is the SAED pattern of the hexagon revealing the structures of α-PbO<sub>2</sub>.

Figure 1 (a) TEM micrograph of the Hexagon-like structures synthesized at 2 V. (b) Magnified TEM micrograph of the hexagon and inset is the SAED pattern of the hexagon revealing the structures of α-PbO2.

 

Figure 2(a) and Figure 2(b) are the TEM micrographs of the material as obtained after the electrolysis at 4V for one hour. The TEM micrographs reveal the distorted hexagon-like structures consisting of some different nanomaterials. Figure 2(b) is the magnified TEM image of such a distorted hexagon. Interestingly, it can be seen that the hexagons still have maintained its boundary; whereas the region inside the boundary of the hexagons have changed into small particle-like structures. The further magnified TEM micrograph as shown in Fig. 2(c) reveals that these particles are in the form of small circular and flower-like structures. Circular and flower-like particles have been indicated by white arrow in the Fig. 2(c). Figure 2(d) is the SAED pattern from these structures.

 

Figure 2 (a) Distorted hexagons at higher applied voltage of 4 V. (b) TEM micrograph of a single hexagon where only the boundary of the hexagon is visible. (c) Magnified TEM micrograph revealed the circular- and flower-like structures. (d) The SAED pattern from these structures.

Figure 2 (a) Distorted hexagons at higher applied voltage of 4 V. (b) TEM micrograph of a single hexagon where only the boundary of the hexagon is visible. (c) Magnified TEM micrograph revealed the circular- and flower-like structures. (d) The SAED pattern from these structures.

 

As we increased the applied potential to 6V, the hexagon-like structures disappeared and only flower-like structures (which were also previously observed inside the hexagons) were observed in the sample as can be seen from Fig. 3(a) and 3(b). Figure 3(c) is a magnified TEM image of the flower-like structures having clearly six petals obtained at higher applied potentials. The diameter of the flower-like structures is 200-500nm and each petal has the size 100-200 nm. Figure 3(d) is the SAED pattern from a single flower-like structure.

 

Figure 3 (a) TEM micrographs of flower-like structures of lead oxide synthesized at 6 V. (b) Magnified TEM micrographs of the flower-like structures. (c) TEM micrographs revealing that these structures are six petals flower like. (d) The SAED pattern from the single flower-like structure.

Figure 3 (a) TEM micrographs of flower-like structures of lead oxide synthesized at 6 V. (b) Magnified TEM micrographs of the flower-like structures. (c) TEM micrographs revealing that these structures are six petals flower like. (d) The SAED pattern from the single flower-like structure.

 

The white product obtained after several electrolysis runs was collected and further characterized by XRD for structural analysis. Figure 4 is the XRD pattern from the materials obtained after electrolysis at 6 V for 2 h. The diffraction peaks from these flower-like structures were indexed to the orthorhombic system of α-PbO2 with lattice parameter a=4.971 Å, b=5.956 Å, c=5.438Å, confirming that the synthesized materials were α-PbO2. In addition to the delaminated nanostructures in the electrolyte, investigations of the lead anode, which were subjected to electrolysis runs, reveal the presence of large numbers of PbO2 micron-sized crystals.

 

Figure 4 XRD pattern from the materials obtained after electrolysis at 6 V for 1 h. The diffraction peaks could be indexed to orthorhombic system of α-PbO<sub>2</sub> with lattice parameter (a=4.971 A, b=5.956 ˚ A, c=5.438 ˚ A).

Figure 4 XRD pattern from the materials obtained after electrolysis at 6 V for 1 h. The diffraction peaks could be indexed to orthorhombic system of α-PbO2 with lattice parameter (a=4.971 A, b=5.956 ˚ A, c=5.438 ˚ A).

 

Although the exact mechanism for the formation of lead oxide nanostructures is not quite understood, a plausible explanation for the formation of lead oxide nanostructures by electrolysis can be provided. The reactions for the formation of a-PbO2 structures from Pb electrodes during electrolysis can be described by the mechanism suggested by Lee et al. [31]. In our case the electrochemical situation is [Pt/water(mildly acidic)/Pb], with applied voltage greater than ~1.23V, which corresponds to electrolysis with moderate to vigorous oxygen and hydrogen evolution. As we apply the potential greater than 2V, the water gets electrolyzed. Under this condition the hydrogen is liberated at the platinum electrode whereas a continuous layer of surface adsorbed oxygen molecules is expected at the lead electrode. Simultaneously the lead electrode was oxidized into lead ions, which after reaction with the surface-adsorbed oxygen molecules, resulted in the lead oxide nanostructures. The formation of PbO2 nanostructures, as is evident from Fig. (1, 2 and 3), is dependent dominantly on the applied potential. At mild applied potential of 2 to 4 V, oxygen evolution is expected to be mild and the migration of fresh Pb2+ ions from the interior will be slow [32]. The formation of lead ions and surface-adsorbed oxygen and hence the reaction kinetics depends on the applied potential, which governs the formation of different lead oxide nanostructures. The reactions for the formation of a-PbO2 structures from Pb electrodes after electrolysis can be described by the following equations [31,33].

 

1291

 

 

Figure 5 presents a schematic on the formation of different structures of PbO2at various applied potential of 2V, 4V and 6V. Left-side images are schematic presentation of the structures and the right-side images are corresponding to the nanomaterials as obtained at various applied potentials. It is a very simple and cost-effective method for the synthesis of the desired micron-sized hexagon-like structures or nano-sized six-petal flower-like structure.

 

Figure 5 Schematic presentation of the different nanostructures at various applied potentials. Left-side images are schematic and right-side images are as obtained after anodization at the corresponding applied potentials.

Figure 5 Schematic presentation of the different nanostructures at various applied potentials. Left-side images are schematic and right-side images are as obtained after anodization at the corresponding applied potentials.

 

There are several effective parameters that can affect the structure, morphology and yield of the product, such as the distance between the electrodes, temperature, time of oxidation, and applied potential. Among all of these parameters, the applied potential between the electrodes was the most influential for the synthesized nanostructures. That is why the effect of the applied potential has been studied in detail, keeping in mind that the rest of the parameters could also influence on the yield of the products. As we increase the time of oxidation at a particular applied potential, we obtain a higher yield of the corresponding nanomaterials.

 

Conclusion

 

Submicron sized hexagons and six-petal flower-like structures of a-PbO2 have been synthesized by a very simple route of anodic oxidation of lead sheet. Anodic oxidation at 2V results in the formation of hexagon-like structures, with a size ranging from 1 to 2μm in the electrolyte. Applied potential of 6V results in six-petal flower-like structures of PbO2.

 

Acknowledgments

 

The authors acknowledge with gratitude the financial support from USACH- Chile, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and University Grant Commission (UGC) New Delhi, India.

 

References

 

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[2]. H. Gau, S. Herminghaus, P. Lenz and R. Lipowsky, Science 283, 46 (1999).http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.283.5398.46

[3]. T. A. Taton, G. L. Lu and C. A. Mirkin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 5164 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja0102639

[4]. J. H. Fendler, Chem. Mater. 13, 3196 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm010165m

[5]. A. Stein, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 227, 227 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1387-1811(01)00189-5

[6]. I. V. Kityk, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292, 184 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3093(01)00860-2

[7]. Y. R. Uhm, J. Kim, S. Lee, J. Jeon and C. K. Rhee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50, 4478 (2011).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie102300x

[8]. K. Konstantinov, S. H. Ng, J. Z. Wang, G. X. Wang, D. Wexler and H. K. Liu, J. Power Sources 159, 241 (2006).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.04.029

[9]. Q. Wang, X. Sun, S. Luo, L. Sun, X. Wu, M. Cao and C. Hu, Crystal Growth & Design 7, 2665 (2007).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cg0605178

[10].H. Karami, M. A. Karimi, S. Haghdar, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 3054 (2008).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2007.11.014

[11].M. M. K. Motlagh, M. K. Mahmoudabad, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 59, 106 (2011).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10971-011-2467-y

[12].A. T. Kuhn Ed., “The Electrochemistry of Lead”, Academic Press, London, (1979).

[13].J. P. Pohl and H. Rickert, in: S. Trasatti Ed., “Electrodes of Conductive Metal Oxides: Part A”, Elsevier, Amsterdam 183, (1980).

[14].Yu. D. Dunaev Ed., “Insoluble Anodes from Alloys and Based Lead”, Science, Alma-Ata (1978).

[15].S. R. Ellis, N. A. Hampson, M. C. Ball and F. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Electrochem. 16, 159 (1986).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01093347

[16].A. M. Couper, D. Pletcher and F. C. Walsh, Chem. Rev. 90, 847 (1990).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr00103a010

[17].M. Musiani, J. Electroanal. Chem. 465, 160 (1999).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0728(99)00080-7

[18].A. Mehdinia, M. F. Mousavi, M. Shamsipur, J. Chromatography A 1134, 24 (2006).

[19].Y. Wang, Y. Xie, W. Li, Z. Wang, and D. E. Giammar, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 8950 (2010).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es102318z

[20].G. Xi, Y. Peng, L. Xu, M. Zhang, W. Yu and Y. Qian, Inorg. Chem. Communications 7, 607 (2004).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.inoche.2004.03.001

[21].J. Lee, S. Sim, K. Kim, K. Cho and S. Kim, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 122, 85 (2005).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2005.04.020

[22].U. Casellato, S. Cattarin and M. Musiani, Electrochimica Acta 48, 3991 (2003).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(03)00527-9

[23].Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai and Z. L. Wanga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 309 (2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1432749

[24].T. Mahalingam, S. Velumani, M. Raja, S. Thanikaikarasan, J. P. Chu, S. F. Wang and Y. D. Kim, Mater. Character. 58, 817 (2007).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2006.11.021

[25].L. Shi, Y. Xu and Q. Li, Crystal Growth & Design, 8, 3521 (2008).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cg700909v

[26].S. Ghasemi, M. F. Mousavi, M. Shamsipur and H. Karami, Ultrason. Sonochem.15, 448 (2008).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2007.05.006

[27].L. Hashemi and A. Morsali, J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. 20, 856 (2010).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10904-010-9404-3

[28].A. Ramazani, S. Hamidi and A. Morsali, J. Molecular Liquids 157, 73 (2010).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2010.08.012

[29].H. Sadeghzadeh and A. Morsali, Ultrason. Sonochem. 18, 80 (2011).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.01.011

[30].A. B. Velichenko and D. Devilliers, J. Fluorine Chem. 128, 269 (2007).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluchem.2006.11.010

[31].J. Lee, H. Varela, S. Uhm, Y. Tak, Electrochem. Commun. 2, 646 (2000).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2481(00)00095-3

[32].D. P. Singh, N. R. Neti, A. S. K. Sinha and O. N. Srivastava, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1638 (2007).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp0657179

[33].D. P. Singh and O. N. Srivastava, J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 9, 5515 (2009).

References

[1].P. Jing, F. J. Cizeron and V. L. Colvin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 7957 (1999).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja991321h

[2].H. Gau, S. Herminghaus, P. Lenz and R. Lipowsky, Science 283, 46 (1999).http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.283.5398.46

[3]. T. A. Taton, G. L. Lu and C. A. Mirkin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 5164 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja0102639

[4].J. H. Fendler, Chem. Mater. 13, 3196 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm010165m

[5].A. Stein, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 227, 227 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1387-1811(01)00189-5

[6]. I. V. Kityk, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 292, 184 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3093(01)00860-2

[7].Y. R. Uhm, J. Kim, S. Lee, J. Jeon and C. K. Rhee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50, 4478 (2011).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie102300x

[8].K. Konstantinov, S. H. Ng, J. Z. Wang, G. X. Wang, D. Wexler and H. K. Liu, J. Power Sources 159, 241 (2006).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.04.029

[9].Q. Wang, X. Sun, S. Luo, L. Sun, X. Wu, M. Cao and C. Hu, Crystal Growth & Design 7, 2665 (2007).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cg0605178

[10].H. Karami, M. A. Karimi, S. Haghdar, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 3054 (2008).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2007.11.014

[11].M. M. K. Motlagh, M. K. Mahmoudabad, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 59, 106 (2011).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10971-011-2467-y

[12].A. T. Kuhn Ed., “The Electrochemistry of Lead”, Academic Press, London, (1979).

[13].J. P. Pohl and H. Rickert, in: S. Trasatti Ed., “Electrodes of Conductive Metal Oxides: Part A”, Elsevier, Amsterdam 183, (1980).

[14].Yu. D. Dunaev Ed., “Insoluble Anodes from Alloys and Based Lead”, Science, Alma-Ata (1978).

[15].S. R. Ellis, N. A. Hampson, M. C. Ball and F. Wilkinson, J. Appl. Electrochem. 16, 159 (1986).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01093347

[16].A. M. Couper, D. Pletcher and F. C. Walsh, Chem. Rev. 90, 847 (1990).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr00103a010

[17].M. Musiani, J. Electroanal. Chem. 465, 160 (1999).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0728(99)00080-7

[18].A. Mehdinia, M. F. Mousavi, M. Shamsipur, J. Chromatography A 1134, 24 (2006).

[19].Y. Wang, Y. Xie, W. Li, Z. Wang, and D. E. Giammar, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 8950 (2010).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es102318z

[20].G. Xi, Y. Peng, L. Xu, M. Zhang, W. Yu and Y. Qian, Inorg. Chem. Communications 7, 607 (2004).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.inoche.2004.03.001

[21].J. Lee, S. Sim, K. Kim, K. Cho and S. Kim, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 122, 85 (2005).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2005.04.020

[22].U. Casellato, S. Cattarin and M. Musiani, Electrochimica Acta 48, 3991 (2003).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(03)00527-9

[23].Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai and Z. L. Wanga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 309 (2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1432749

[24].T. Mahalingam, S. Velumani, M. Raja, S. Thanikaikarasan, J. P. Chu, S. F. Wang and Y. D. Kim, Mater. Character. 58, 817 (2007).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2006.11.021

[25].L. Shi, Y. Xu and Q. Li, Crystal Growth & Design, 8, 3521 (2008).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cg700909v

[26].S. Ghasemi, M. F. Mousavi, M. Shamsipur and H. Karami, Ultrason. Sonochem.15, 448 (2008).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2007.05.006

[27].L. Hashemi and A. Morsali, J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. 20, 856 (2010).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10904-010-9404-3

[28].A. Ramazani, S. Hamidi and A. Morsali, J. Molecular Liquids 157, 73 (2010).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2010.08.012

[29].H. Sadeghzadeh and A. Morsali, Ultrason. Sonochem. 18, 80 (2011).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.01.011

[30].A. B. Velichenko and D. Devilliers, J. Fluorine Chem. 128, 269 (2007).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluchem.2006.11.010

[31].J. Lee, H. Varela, S. Uhm, Y. Tak, Electrochem. Commun. 2, 646 (2000).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2481(00)00095-3

[32].D. P. Singh, N. R. Neti, A. S. K. Sinha and O. N. Srivastava, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 1638 (2007).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp0657179

[33].D. P. Singh and O. N. Srivastava, J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 9, 5515 (2009).

Citation Information

Dinesh Pratap Singh and Onkar Nath Srivastava, Synthesis of Micron-sized Hexagonal and Flower-like Nanostructures of Lead Oxide (PbO2) by Anodic Oxidation of Lead. Nano-Micro Lett. 3 (4), 255-259 (2011). doi:10.3786/nml.v3i4.p223-227

History

Receive 7 October; accepted 28 November; published online 2 December.

 


Additional Info

  • Type of Publishing: JOUR - Journal
  • Title:

    Synthesis of Micron-sizedHexagonal and Flower-like Nanostructures of Lead Oxide (PbO2) by Anodic Oxidation of Lead

  • Author: Dinesh Pratap Singh,Onkar Nath Srivastava
  • Year: 2011
  • Volume: 3
  • Issue: 4
  • Journal Name: Nano-Micro Letters
  • Publisher: OPEN ACCESS HOUSE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
  • ISSN: 2150-5551
  • URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3786/nml.v3i4.p223-227
  • Abstract:

        Micron sized hexagon- and flower-like nanostructures of lead oxide (a-PbO2) have been synthesized by very simple and cost effective route of anodic oxidation of lead sheet. These structures were easily obtained by the simple variation of applied voltage from 2-6V between the electrodes. Lead sheet was used as an anode and platinum sheet served as a cathode. Anodic oxidation at 2V resulted in the variable edge sized (1-2mm) hexagon-like structures in the electrolyte. When the applied potential was increased to 4V a structure of distorted hexagons consisting of some flower-like structures were obtained. Further increment of potential up to 6V resulted in flower like structures of a-PbO2 having six petalsThe diameter of the flower-like structures was ~200-500 nm and the size of a petal was ~100-200nm.

  • Publish Date: Friday, 18 November 2011
  • Start Page: 223
  • Endpage: 227
  • DOI: 10.3786/nml.v3i4.p223-227